Mahatma Gandhi: The Father Of Our Nation
As you all know, October 2nd is known as Gandhi Jayanti, for Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, our Father Of The Nation, was born on October 2nd, 1869. Mahatma Gandhi is revered all over the world for his philosophy of nonviolence and passive resistance. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in the present-day Indian state of Gujarat on October 2, 1869. His father served as the dewan (chief minister) of Porbandar, and his extremely religious mother was a devout follower of Vaishnavism (Hindu god Vishnu worship), influenced by Jainism, an ascetic faith based on self-discipline and nonviolence.
In the early 1900s, he began his activism as an Indian immigrant in South Africa, and in the years following World War I, he rose to prominence as a key figure in India’s battle for independence from the United Kingdom. Gandhi was imprisoned several times during his pursuit of non-cooperation, and participated in a number of hunger strikes to protest the oppression of India’s poorest classes, among other injustices. He was known for his ascetic lifestyle–he often dressed only in a loincloth and shawl–and devout Hindu faith. He continued to fight for peace between Hindus and Muslims after Partition in 1947. Gandhi was assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu fanatic in Delhi in January 1948.
We are lucky to be born in such a democratic nation, but we should never forget the efforts of our great national leaders who have sacrificed so much for the freedom we have today. Below listed are some of the major movements conducted by Mahatma Gandhi as a result of which we enjoy this freedom.
Champaran Satyagraha (Satyagraha of Champaran) (1917): Under the Tinkathia regime, Indigo cultivators in the Champaran area of Bihar suffered greatly. Cultivators were required to cultivate Indigo on the best 3/20th of their land, and they were forced to sell it at a lower price under this arrangement. Mahatma Gandhi used the civil disobedience strategy in Champaran, organizing protests and strikes against the landlords. As a result, the government established a Champaran agrarian committee, which included Gandhiji as a member. The Satyagraha was successful because all of the cultivators’ demands were met.
Kheda Satyagraha (1917-1918): In 1917, Mohan Lal Pandey launched a no-tax movement in Kheda village, Gujarat, demanding the remission of taxes owing to low harvest or crop failure. Mahatma Gandhi was invited, and on March 22, 1918, he joined the movement. He began Satyagraha there. Vallabhbhai Patel and Indulal Yagnik also joined the cause. Finally, the British government met the conditions, and the operation was victorious.
Khilafat Movement in 1919 founded by the Ali brothers to demonstrate their dissatisfaction with the treatment of Turkey following World War I. The movement against the British administration to restore the Caliph’s declining status in Turkey was initiated under Mahatma Gandhi’s guidance. In Delhi, Mahatma Gandhi was elected president of the All India Conference. He also returned the British Empire medals he had received in South Africa. He became the national leader as a result of the Khilafat movement’s success.
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920): In response to the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Mahatma Gandhi began the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this would continue, and that the British would continue to enjoy their dominance over Indians. Gandhi ji persuaded people to launch the non-cooperation movement in a nonviolent manner, which played a major role in achieving independence, with the support of Congress. He coined the term “Swaraj,” which became a key component of the Indian independence movement. People began boycotting British government products and establishments such as schools, colleges, and government offices as the movement gained traction. However, Mahatma Gandhi put a halt to the campaign after the Chauri Chaura tragedy, in which 23 police officers were killed.
Civil-Disobedience Movement (1930): Civil-Disobedience Movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi in March 1930. The civil disobedience movement started with the infamous Dandi March, also known by the name salt satyagraha. Mahatma Gandhi addressed the nation in the Young India newspaper, expressing his willingness to call a halt to the movement if his eleven requests were met by the government. However, the government at the time was led by Lord Irwin, who did not respond to him. As a result, Mahatma Gandhi went all out to start the campaign.
Quit India Movement (1942): During World War II, Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India movement on August 8, 1942, with the goal of removing British authority from India. Mahatma Gandhi gave a ‘Do or Die’ address during the campaign. As a result, British officers arrested all members of the Indian National Congress and imprisoned them without charge. However, the demonstrations persisted across the country. The British government had agreed to pass over the powers to India at the end of World War II. The movement, which resulted in the release of thousands of inmates, was called off by Mahatma Gandhi. These are Mahatma Gandhi’s significant movements that helped India gain independence from British or colonial authority.
In 1947 Britain had granted India our Independence reluctantly. But this also brought about drastic changes in our country. India post independence was divided into two independent nations, Hindu majority as India & Muslim majority as Pakistan. On August 15, 1947, Gandhi spent his Independence Day fasting and spinning in Calcutta, not celebrating the end of British rule but praying for peace among his countrymen. The partition had led to another big riot in the Indian subcontinent. And on January 30th 1948, around 5:17pm, he breathed his last when Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist fired three bullets into his chest. But he sure left us a legacy, a legacy that any citizen can be proud of. And in 2021 October 2nd here we are celebrating the 152nd birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. This day is known as Gandhi Jayanti and people organize various events to celebrate this day. We have also organized a simple Gandhi Jayanti Quiz to celebrate our beloved bapuji.
What are the 6 principles of Mahatma Gandhi to which he adhered all along his life?
What are the 4 pillars of Gandhian Thought?
Sarvodaya means universal uplifting or progress of all. This term was first coined by Mahatma Gandhi. His model of sarvodaya meant an ideal society built upon the principles of non-violence, equality & freedom.
Who influenced Gandhiji’s idea of sarvodaya?
The concept of Sarvodaya was inspired by John Ruskin’s book “Unto this Last”. In this book, Ruskin defines wealth and then explains that wealth can only be acquired by following some moral conditions such as justice and honesty.
Major Freedom Struggles or Movements by Mahatma Gandhi
- Khilafat Movement
- Non-Cooperation Movement
- Salt March/Dandi Movement
- Quit India Movement
Which are the major books authored by M K Gandhi?
- Hind Swaraj- First Book Written by Mahatma Gandhi
- An autobiography or the story of my experiments with truth
- The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life
- Satyagraha in South Africa
Who is the political guru of Gandhiji?
Gopal Krishna Gokhale was a mentor to both Mohammed Ali Ginah and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi).
Who Addressed Mahatma Gandhi as the Father of Nation?
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was the first to address Mahatma Gandhi as the Father of the Nation. He was later conferred the title by the Constitution of India.
How many times was Mahatma Gandhi nominated for the Nobel Prize?
Mahatma Gandhi or Gandhiji was nominated for the Nobel Prize 5 times in the years 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947 & 1948. He was not awarded the Nobel Prize though.
Who addressed Gandhiji as a Mickey Mouse?
Sarojini Naidu had called Gandhiji as a chocolate coloured Mickey Mouse and Gandhiji had affectionately called her the Nightingale of India.
What is Sevagram?
Sevagram is the name of a village and was given that name by Mahatma Gandhi when he shifted from Sabarmati Ashram to the outskirts of Wardha in Maharashtra. He directed the Indian Independence Movements from Sevagram.